Bus and interface systems
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PROFINET (Process Field Network) is a standard for Industrial Ethernet based on Industrial Ethernet according to IEEE 802.xx.
Three protocol levels are defined:
TCP/IP for PROFINET CBA and the commissioning of a plant with reaction times in the range of 100 ms. RT (real-time) protocol for PROFINET CBA and PROFINET IO applications up to 10 ms cycle times. IRT (Isochronous Real-Time) for PROFINET IO applications in drive systems with cycles times of less than 1 ms. The protocols can be recorded and displayed using an Ethernet analysis tool such as Wireshark. The topology can be shown using analysis tools such as TH Scope.
PROFIBUS (Process Field Bus) is a standard for fieldbus communication in automation technology and was first promoted in 1989 by BMBF (German department of education and research) and then used by Siemens. It should not be confused with the PROFINET standard for Industrial Ethernet.
CANopen is a communication protocol and device profile specification for embedded systems used in automation. In terms of the OSI model, CANopen implements the layers above and including the network layer. The CANopen standard consists of an addressing scheme, several small communication protocols and an application layer defined by a device profile. The communication protocols have support for network management, device monitoring and communication between nodes, including a simple transport layer for message segmentation/desegmentation. The lower level protocol implementing the data link and physical layers is usually Controller Area Network (CAN), although devices using some other means of communication (such as Ethernet Powerlink, EtherCAT) can also implement the CANopen device profile.
The basic CANopen device and communication profiles are given in the CiA 301 specification released by CAN in Automation. Profiles for more specialized devices are built on top of this basic profile, and are specified in numerous other standards released by CAN in Automation, such as CiA 401 for I/O-modules and CiA 402 for motion control.
Interbus is a serial bus system which transmits data between control systems (e.g., PCs, PLCs, VMEbus computers, robot controllers etc.) and spatially distributed I/O modules that are connected to sensors and actuators (e.g., temperature sensors, position switches). The INTERBUS system was developed by Phoenix Contact and has been available since 1987. It is one of the leading Fieldbus systems in the automation industry and is fully standardized according to European Standard EN 50254 and IEC 61158. At the moment, more than 600 manufacturers are involved in the implementation of INTERBUS technology in control systems and field devices.
AS-Interface (Actuator Sensor Interface, AS-i) is an industrial networking solution (physical layer, data access method and protocol) used in PLC, DCS and PC-based automation systems. It is designed for connecting simple field I/O devices (e.g. binary ON/OFF devices such as actuators, sensors, rotary encoders, analog inputs and outputs, push buttons, and valve position sensors) in discrete manufacturing and process applications using a single 2-conductor cable.
AS-Interface is an 'open' technology supported by a multitude of automation equipment vendors. According to AS-International Association there are currently (2013) over 24 Million AS-Interface field devices installed globally, growing at about 2 million per year.
AS-Interface is a networking alternative to the hard wiring of field devices. It can be used as a partner network for higher level fieldbus networks such as Profibus, DeviceNet, Interbus and Industrial Ethernet, for whom it offers a low-cost remote I/O solution. It is used in automation applications, including conveyor control, packaging machines, process control valves, bottling plants, electrical distribution systems, airport baggage carousels, elevators, bottling lines and food production lines.
Modbus is a serial communications protocol originally published by Modicon (now Schneider Electric) in 1979 for use with its programmable logic controllers (PLCs). Simple and robust, it has since become a de facto standard communication protocol, and it is now a commonly available means of connecting industrial electronic devices. The main reasons for the use of Modbus in the industrial environment are: - developed with industrial applications in mind - openly published and royalty-free - easy to deploy and maintain - moves raw bits or words without placing many restrictions on vendors
Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs) and metropolitan area networks (MANs). It was commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3, and has since been refined to support higher bit rates and longer link distances. Over time, Ethernet has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as token ring, FDDI, and ARCNET. The primary alternative for contemporary LANs is not a wired standard, but instead a wireless LAN standardized as IEEE 802.11 and also known as Wi-Fi.
Universal Serial Bus (USB) is an industry standard developed in the mid-1990s that defines the cables, connectors and communications protocols used in a bus for connection, communication, and power supply between computers and electronic devices.
USB was designed to standardize the connection of computer peripherals (including keyboards, pointing devices, digital cameras, printers, portable media players, disk drives and network adapters) to personal computers, both to communicate and to supply electric power. It has become commonplace on other devices, such as smartphones, PDAs and video game consoles. USB has effectively replaced a variety of earlier interfaces, such as serial and parallel ports, as well as separate power chargers for portable devices.
TIA-485-A, also known as ANSI/TIA/EIA-485, TIA/EIA-485, EIA-485 or RS-485, is a standard defining the electrical characteristics of drivers and receivers for use in balanced digital multipoint systems. The standard is published by the Telecommunications Industry Association/Electronic Industries Alliance (TIA/EIA). Digital communications networks implementing the EIA-485 standard can be used effectively over long distances and in electrically noisy environments. Multiple receivers may be connected to such a network in a linear, multi-drop configuration. These characteristics make such networks useful in industrial environments and similar applications.
The Internet protocol suite is the computer networking model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP, because its most important protocols, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), were the first networking protocols defined in this standard. Often also called the Internet model, it was originally also known as the DoD model, because the development of the networking model was funded by DARPA, an agency of the United States Department of Defense.